Main Stem Feeders - Beetles
Black Turpentine Beetle - Dendroctonus terebrans
- Photo of black turpentine beetle pitch tubes. The pitch tubes are resin masses produced by infested trees in an attempt to remove the beetles from the tree. These tubes are the primary indicators of beetle attack. Attacks are concentrated in the lower eight to ten feet of the trunk.
- Close-up of black turpentine beetle pitch tube. These pitch tubes are fairly large, up to the size of a walnut.
- Photo of black turpentine beetle adults. Adults will bore into the inner bark where the females lay eggs in the carved-out tunnels. Hatched larvae feed on the inner bark and will pupate there until they emerge as adults.
- Dorsal view of black turpentine beetle adult. Adults are relatively small, with an average size of 6 to 10 mm.
- Lateral view of black turpentine beetle adult. Note that the hardened wing covers curve down smoothly over the abdomen at the rear end and no spines, teeth, or projections are present.
Six spined Ips Beetle - Ips calligraphus
- Photo of six-spined ips adults. Notice that the coloration of the adults is tan-brown, dark reddish brown, to black.
- Close-up of six-spined ips adult. Note that when viewed from above, the head of the adult ips beetle is not visible. Also, the hardened wing covers at the rear are "blunted" and "scooped-out" and that there are projections or teeth-like structures along the outside edge of the wing covers.
- Lateral view of six-spined ips adult. Adults are commonly 4 to 6 mm long.
- Typical ips tunnels engraved by adults in inner bark. Note that the adult tunnels run with the grain of the wood and appear in a "Y, I, or H" shape.
- Photo of ips larval and adult tunnels. Notice that the larval tunnels run predominately across the grain of the wood.
Southern Pine Beetle - Dendroctonus frontalis
- Photo of "redtop" pines, typical of southern pine beetle infestations. Nearby trees are usually light green to yellow in color, indicating that the trees are in the process of being attacked.
- Southern pine beetle pitch tubes on the bark of an infected pine. These pitch tubes are small, often the size of a pea.
- Typical tunnels of southern pine beetle as viewed in the sapwood. Notice the common "S" shaped galleries formed by adult females. The female beetles will lay their eggs in the small niches of these galleries.
- Typical tunnels of southern pine beetle as viewed from the inner bark. Southern pine beetle attacks are usually concentrated in the middle part of the trunk.
- Southern pine beetle adult exit holes. Hatched larvae feed will feed in the sapwood and inner bark until they emerge from these holes as adults after about 30 days.
- Close-up of adult southern pine beetle. Notice that the head is visible from the when viewed from above and that the wing covers have no projections or teeth. Adults are quite small, averaging between 2 to 4 mm.